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集电环的应用范围

  一般,钢质集电环的耐磨性好,机械强度大,因此大多用于因极性引起集电环磨损差较大的同步电机上。钢可以加工成复杂的结构,它是一种容易得到而又价廉物美的材料,所以,广泛用于包括圆周速度较低的水轮发电机在内的同步电机。对于像汽轮发电机那样,主要强调高圆周速度下机械强度和耐磨性的集电环,有时也使用锻钢。

  另外,要求耐腐蚀性时,可使用不锈钢,但不锈钢的滑动特性不稳定,与电刷组合不合适往往使电刷产生跳动,容易造成电刷温升过高或异常磨损,所以使用时必须倍加注意。青铜铸件等铜质集电环与钢质集电环相比,它的滑动特性好,所以用途很广,但当含有大量低熔点铅时,因通电点的发热而产生脱铅现象,容易造成集电环磨损或电刷异常磨损。

  Generally, steel collector rings have good wear resistance and high mechanical strength, so they are mostly used in synchronous motors with worn collector rings caused by polarity. Steel can be processed into complex structures. It is an easily available and inexpensive material. Therefore, it is widely used in synchronous motors, including hydroelectric generators with low circumferential speed. For collector rings like turbogenerators, which emphasize mechanical strength and wear resistance at high circumferential speeds, forged steel is sometimes used. In addition, stainless steel can be used when corrosion resistance is required, but the sliding characteristics of stainless steel are unstable, and improper combination with brush often causes the brush to jump, which is easy to cause excessive temperature rise or abnormal wear. Therefore, more attention must be paid when using the brush. Compared with steel collector rings, copper collector rings, such as bronze castings, have good sliding characteristics, so they are widely used. However, when containing a large amount of low melting point lead, lead removal occurs due to the heating of the electrifying point, which easily causes abnormal wear of collector rings or brushes.

  集电环与电刷的配合上,当电刷的研磨性过强而集电环的材质过软时,往往在集电环上发生相当于电刷宽度的阶梯磨损。尤其是高温低湿的全封闭式电机,更容易引起电刷或集电环的过大磨损。重象伤痕是这样形成的,一开始只有非常小的伤痕,电刷在这些部位集电不良而产生火花。一旦产生火花,伤痕就逐渐恶化扩大起来,最后形成与电刷滑动接触面的尺寸同样大小的伤痕。因而,集电环用电刷即使产生非常小的火花,也必须予以注意。

  When the abrasiveness of the brush is too strong and the material of the collector ring is too soft, the step wear of the collector ring which corresponds to the width of the brush often occurs. Especially the closed motor with high temperature and low humidity is more likely to cause excessive wear of brush or collector ring. The duplicate image scar is formed in this way. At first, there are only very small scars. The electric brush collects electricity poorly in these areas and produces sparks. Once sparks occur, the scars gradually deteriorate and expand, and eventually form a scar of the same size as the sliding contact surface of the brush. Therefore, even if the collector ring brush produces very small sparks, it must be paid attention to.

  为了预防在钢质集电环上发生严重的重象伤痕,在电机长期停转时应将电刷提起。为了改善并联电刷的电流分布,可移动集电环滑动接触面的通电点。为了获得良好的滑动特性,在集电环上开螺旋状的斜槽是有效的。

  In order to prevent serious duplicate image scars on steel collector rings, brushes should be raised when the motor is shut down for a long time. In order to improve the current distribution of parallel brushes, the switching point of sliding contact surface of collector ring can be moved. In order to obtain good sliding characteristics, it is effective to open spiral inclined grooves on collector ring.

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